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How does the procedure of embryo freezing (cryoconservation) work?

Embryo freezing is a method of preserving embryos derived in result of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It is used when quality embryos are left after transference in accordance with it, they can be utilized at any time.

The procedure of work (manipulations) with frozen embryos is simple, convenient and economical. It is not required to have daily injecting or ultrasound control. You do not need to carry out procedures that require the use of sedatives, and in most cases, there is no side effects, because during preparation the level of hormones will be as close as possible to the norm.

The treatment is based on the preparation of the uterus for being ready to receive the unfrozen embryo. It is necessary to use a hormonal patch or tablet for two weeks before the procedure of the embryo transfer.

The preparation of the uterus for an unfrozen embryo transfer begins with menstruation. In ten days after it, an ultrasound examination confirms the uterus’s readiness and then unfreezing and transfer of embryo are planned.

Vaginal progesterone is used 3 – 5 days before the embryo unfreezing.

The technique of cryopreserved embryo transfer is identical to the procedure with fresh embryos, it does not require any other preparation or provide additional discomfort. Further recommendations are the same for both frozen and fresh embryos, and should have the same medical treatment (vaginal patches and other hormones) before the realization of pregnancy test.

To sum up, we can say that the procedure is very simple: hormonal patches are fastened to the body for several days, control ultrasound is performed, progesterone is taken and the embryo is transferred.

Embryo freezing is a method of preserving embryos derived in result of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It is used when quality embryos are left after transference in accordance with it, they can be utilized at any other time.

Embryo freezing or cryopreservation can increase the probability of pregnancy by puncturing (with the help of only oocytes stimulation, we can receive more than one embryo) and also prevent multiple pregnancy, because cryopreservation helps to regulate the number of transferred embryos.

For cryopreservation of embryos, it is necessary to put them in liquid nitrogen with a very low temperature, such as -196 ° C. At this temperature, any biological activity stops, besides the vital, but during freezing ice crystals can be formed, which can damage a cell.

The cryoprotectants are used to avoid damages of cells and to store the samples better for an indefinite period of time, these substances act in the same way as antifreeze. Every embryo is properly identified by code and stored with nitrogen.

Vitrification is a method of ultrafast freezing, which is based on the use of very high concentrations of cryoprotectants and extremely high freezing rates preventing the formation of ice crystals. The introduction of this technique in daily use in laboratories, compared with other traditional methods, contributed to the improvement of the results to 90% of the survival of embryos.

Due to the significant progress in cryopreservation technologies, the quality of the received frozen embryos does not differ significantly from the quality of fresh embryos. On the other hand, freezing of embryos is not associated with an increased risk of developing malformations or complications during pregnancy.

With the implementation of vitrification methods, the viability of embryos and the chances of becoming pregnant have increased significantly in recent years.

The chance of achieving pregnancy by cryopreserved embryo is a bit lower than by fresh embryos, but it should be mentioned that this technology includes minimal efforts in terms of fertilization and expenses.

According to the experiences of pregnant women and children (that were born by in vitro (IVF)), there is no difference during the period of pregnancy either fertilization was with the help of frozen embryos or fresh.

Therefore, scientific achievements fully inspire confidence in the safety of this procedure.

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