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In vitro fertilization (IVF)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a combination of female oocytes and male semen in laboratory conditions. In vitro means out of the body. Fertilization means that the sperm has gone to the egg (oocyte).

The egg fertilization usually occurs inside the body of the woman. If the egg is fertilized, later it  joins the walls of the uterus and continues to grow, a child will be born approximately after 9 months, this process is called natural impregnation or impregnation without medical assistance.

IVF

In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), which involves the use of special medical methods in order to help a woman to get pregnant. It should be mentioned that fertilization in the laboratory is carried out when natural impregnation is impossible.

There are five main steps to complete this procedure:

Stage 1: Stimulation or superovulation

- In order to increase the eggs production, women are prescribed hormones.
- As a rule, a woman’s body produces one egg per month, but these medicaments help to obtain several eggs.
- At this stage, a woman undergoes regular transvaginal ultrasound of the ovaries and makes a blood test to determine the level of hormones.

Stage 2: Egg retrieval

- It is a small operation, which is called follicular aspiration and conducts in order to remove eggs from the ovary.
- The procedure is almost always performed on an outpatient basis in a doctor’s office. The egg retrieval takes place under local anaesthesia. With the help of ultrasound image, the doctor inserts a thin needle into the ovary and pierces the sacs (follicles) that contain eggs. Removed oocyte transfers to the special device, where it is stored.
- The procedure is repeated for each ovary separately. A woman may feel some discomfort after surgery, but it usually disappears during the day.
- Laparoscopy can sometimes be used for egg retrieval. If a woman does not produce or cannot produce an egg, donor egg can be used for fertilization.

Stage 3: Fertilization

- The semen is combined with the best egg cell. The combination of sperm and egg is called fertilization.
- After that, the eggs and sperm are stored in the laboratory. Fertilization is usually carried out within several hours after sperm and eggs are combined.
- If the doctor thinks that the probability of fertilization is low, sperm can be injected directly into an egg, this procedure is called an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
- ICSI is recommended in any reproductive medicine program.

Stage 4: Embryo cultivation

- When the fertilized egg divides, it becomes an embryo. Laboratory experts regularly monitor it to ensure that the embryo develops properly.
- During the first five days, the embryo consists of several cells that actively divide.
- Couples who are at high risk of a genetic (hereditary) disease transmission to a child, shall make preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).
- The procedure is carried out approximately 3-4 days after fertilization. Experts remove one cell from each embryo and examine the material to prevent the development of various genetic disorders.
- According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM), PGD can help parents to decide which embryos to implant, moreover, it reduce the possibility of any genetic diseases transmissions.
- There are still discussions on the artificial embryo cultivation and what is more, not every medical centre can offer such program.

Stage 5: Embryo transfer

- Embryos transfer inside the woman’s uterus in 3-5 days after the retrieval and human fertilization.
- This procedure is realized without anesthesia in doctor’s consulting room.
- The doctor inserts a thin tube (catheter) with embryos in the cervix. If the embryo is fixed in the wall of the uterus, it means that the pregnancy has begun.
- It is allowed to place more than one embryo at the same time in the uterus, in this case twins or triplets may be born. The number of transplanted embryos depends on many factors, especially from the woman’s age.
- Unused embryos can be cryopreserved, implanted or used later.

The best European Technology in Interfiv

InterFiv has the latest technological advances in processes of invitro fertilization and reproductive techniques. All our machinery and facilities have quality certificates, thus guaranteeing their total performance and functionality.

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